News & Views
2018 Budget Update
The Government handed down the 2018/19 Federal Budget on Tuesday 8th May 2018. Some of the important proposals include:
- The introduction of the ‘Low and Middle Income Tax Offset’, a temporary non-refundable tax offset of up to $530 p.a. to Australian resident low and middle income taxpayers for the 2019 to 2022 income years. This offset will apply in addition to the Low Income Tax Offset.
- Providing tax relief for individual taxpayers by progressively increasing some of the tax brackets (including an increase in the top threshold of the 32.5% personal income tax bracket from $87,000 to $90,000 from 1 July 2018), and eventually removing the 37% tax bracket entirely.
- The $20,000 immediate write-off for small business will be extended by a further 12 months to 30 June 2019 (i.e., for businesses with aggregated annual turnover less than $10 million).
- From 1 July 2019:
- Increasing the maximum number of allowable members in an SMSF from four to six members;
- Ensuring that unpaid present entitlements (or ‘UPEs’) come within the scope of Division 7A; and
- Denying deductions for expenses associated with holding vacant residential or commercial land.
Superannuation guarantee amnesty introduced
The Government has introduced legislation to complement the superannuation guarantee (‘SG’) integrity package already before Parliament by introducing a one off, twelve month amnesty for historical underpayment of SG.
The Bill incentivises employers to come forward and “do the right thing by their employees” by paying any unpaid superannuation in full, as well as the high rate of nominal interest (but without the penalties for late payment that are normally paid to the Government by such employers).
Employers that do not take advantage of the amnesty will face higher penalties when they are subsequently caught – in general, a minimum 50% on top of the SG Charge they owe.
In addition, throughout the amnesty period the ATO will still continue its usual enforcement activity against employers for those historical obligations they don’t own up to voluntarily.
The amnesty will run for twelve months from 24 May 2018.
ATO scrutinising car claims this tax time
The ATO has announced that it will be closely examining claims for work-related car expenses this tax time as part of a broader focus on work related expenses.
Assistant Commissioner Kath Anderson said:
“We are particularly concerned about taxpayers claiming for things they are not entitled to, like private trips, trips they didn’t make, and car expenses that their employer paid for or reimbursed.”
This is no doubt because over 3.75 million people made a work-related car expense claim in 2016/17 (totalling around $8.8 billion), and, each year, around 870,000 people claim the maximum amount under the cents-per-kilometre method.
Ms Anderson said that the ATO’s ability to identify claims that are unusual has improved due to enhancements in technology and data analytics: “Our models are especially useful in identifying people claiming things like home to work travel or trips not required as part of your job . . . simply travelling from home to work is not enough to qualify, no matter how far you live from your workplace.”
Ms Anderson said there are three golden rules for taxpayers to remember to get it right.
“One – you have to have spent the money yourself and can’t have been reimbursed, two – the claim must be directly related to earning your income, and three – you need a record to prove it.”
A traffic supervisor claimed over $11,000 for work related car expenses, and provided a logbook to substantiate his claim.
However, upon investigation the ATO discovered that the logbook wasn’t printed until the following year – the taxpayer admitted the logbook was fraudulent and it was ruled invalid.
Even though the logbook was invalid, the taxpayer was able to provide other evidence to show that he had travelled at least 5,000 kilometres for work-related purposes, so the ATO used the cents per kilometre method to calculate the taxpayer’s deduction (but his claim was reduced from over $11,000 to under $4,000).
Claiming for home to work travel
A Laboratory Technician claimed $3,300 for work-related car expenses, using the cents per kilometre method for 5,000 kilometres.
However, he advised that his employer did not require him to use his car for work; this claim was based on him needing to get to work.
The ATO advised the taxpayer that home to work travel is a private expense and is not an allowable deduction – his claim was reduced to nil and the ATO applied a penalty for failure to take reasonable care.
What the super housing measures mean for SMSFs
The ATO has reminded members of SMSFs that they will be able to use their voluntary super contributions to assist with buying their first home, or to make a contribution into their super from the proceeds of the sale of their main residence (under changes passed by Parliament in December 2017).
The First Home Super Saver Scheme
The First Home Super Saver (FHSS) Scheme allows SMSF members to save faster for a first home by using the concessional tax treatment available within super.
From 1 July 2018, SMSF members can apply to release certain voluntary concessional and non-concessional contributions made from 1 July 2017, along with associated earnings to help buy their first home.
There are various conditions that need to be met in order to take advantage of this measure – contact our office if you would like to know more.
The downsizing measure
SMSF members who are 65 or over and exchange a contract for sale of their main residence on or after 1 July 2018 may be eligible to make a downsizer contribution of up to $300,000 into their super.
This downsizer contribution won’t count towards their contributions caps or total super balance test in the year it’s made.
However, it will count towards the transfer balance cap and be taken into account for determining eligibility for the age pension.
SMSFs must ensure the member’s contribution has satisfied all relevant conditions and completed the downsizer contribution form before accepting a downsizing contribution.
Car limit for 2018/19
The car limit is $57,581 for the 2018/19 income year (unchanged from the previous year). This amount limits depreciation deductions and GST input tax credits.
FBT: Car parking threshold
The car parking threshold for the FBT year commencing 1 April 2018 is $8.83.
This replaces the amount of $8.66 that applied in the previous year commencing 1 April 2017.
GST withholding measures now law
Legislation has been passed to “clamp down” on GST evasion in the property development sector.
From 1 July 2018, purchasers of new residential premises and new residential subdivisions will generally be required to withhold the GST on the purchase price at settlement and pay it directly to the ATO.
Property developers will also need to give written notification to purchasers regarding whether or not they need to withhold.
The new obligations are primarily aimed at ending the practice of some developers collecting GST on new properties before dissolving their business prior to remitting such tax to the ATO.
Continued ATO focus on holiday home rentals
The ATO has recently advised that they are “setting their sights on the large number of mistakes, errors and false claims made by rental property owners who use their own property for personal holidays”.
While it confirms that the private use of holiday homes by friends and family is entirely legitimate, the ATO states that such use reduces a taxpayer’s ability to earn income from the property, and therefore impacts on (i.e., reduces) the amount of claimable deductions.
As a result, the ATO has reminded holiday home owners that:
- They can only claim deductions for a holiday home with respect to periods it is genuinely available for rent.
- They cannot place unreasonable conditions on prospective tenants/renters, set rental rates above market value, or fail to advertise a holiday home in a manner that targets people who would be interested in it and still claim that the property was genuinely available for rent.
- Where a property is rented to friends or relatives at ‘mates rates’, they can only claim deductions for expenses up to the amount of the income received.
- Property owners whose claims are disproportionate to the income received can expect greater scrutiny from the ATO.
Get ready for Single Touch Payroll
Single Touch Payroll (or ‘STP’) is mandatory for ‘substantial employers’ (being those with 20 or more employees) from 1 July 2018.
All employers are required to count the number of employees on their payroll on 1 April 2018 to find out if they are a substantial employer (note that this can be done after 1 April, but they need to count the employees who were on their payroll on 1 April).
They must count each employee (not the full time equivalent), including full-time, part-time and casual employees, as well as those employees based overseas or absent or on leave (paid or unpaid).
Employers that are part of a company group must include the total number of employees employed by all member companies of the wholly-owned group.
However, employers don’t have to include the following in the headcount:
- any employees who ceased work before 1 April;
- casual employees who did not work in March;
- independent contractors;
- staff provided by a third-party labour hire organisation;
- company directors or office holders; or
- religious practitioners.
Note that, although directors, office holders and religious practitioners are not included in the headcount, if the employer starts reporting through STP, the payment information of these individuals will need to be reported (because the payments are subject to withholding and are currently reported in the Individual non-business payment summary).
Employers don’t need to send the ATO the headcount information, but they may want to keep a copy for their own records.
Once an employer becomes a substantial employer, they will need to continue reporting through STP even if their employee numbers drop to 19 or less (unless they apply for and are granted an exemption).
Please contact our office if you need any assistance regarding the new STP regime.
Employee denied deductions for work-related expenses
An employee photographer has been denied deductions for travel expenses (when travelling with his family), and other purported work related expenses.
The AAT held that the travel expenses were primarily incurred for the purposes of a family trip or holiday and were therefore non-deductible, as they were private and domestic in nature.
Also, in relation to the taxpayer’s reliance on bank statements in the absence of invoices and receipts, the AAT observed that “evidence of the mere transfer of funds, be it by way of bank transfer or by any other means, is not sufficiently informative of the actual character of an expense”, so the other disputed expenses could not be claimed as allowable deductions.
New FBT rates for the 2018/19 FBT year
The ATO has released Taxation Determinations setting out the following rates for the FBT year commencing on 1 April 2018.
FBT: Benchmark interest rate
The benchmark interest rate for the 2018/19 FBT year is 5.20% p.a., which is used to calculate the taxable value of:
- a loan fringe benefit; and
- a car fringe benefit where an employer chooses to value the benefit using the operating cost method.
On 1 April 2018, an employer lends an employee $50,000 for five years at an interest rate of 5% p.a., with interest being charged and paid 6 monthly, and no principal repaid until the end of the loan.
The actual interest payable by the employee for the current year is $2,500 ($50,000 × 5%). The notional interest, with a 5.20% benchmark rate, is $2,600.
Therefore, the taxable value of the loan fringe benefit is $100 (i.e., $2,600 – $2,500).
FBT: Cents per kilometre basis
The rates to be applied where the cents per kilometre basis is used for the 2018/19 FBT year in respect of the private use of a vehicle (other than a car) are:
|Engine Capacity||Rate per kilometre|
|0 – 2,500cc||54 cents|
|Over 2,500cc||65 cents|
FBT: Record keeping exemption threshold
The small business record keeping exemption threshold for the 2018/19 FBT year is $8,552.
The ATO has also released Taxation Determinations setting out the indexation factors to value non-remote housing, and the amounts the ATO considers reasonable for food and drink expenses incurred by employees receiving a living-away-from-home allowance (LAFHA) fringe benefit, for the FBT year commencing on 1 April 2018.
New superannuation rates and thresholds released
The ATO has published the key superannuation rates and thresholds for the 2018/19 income year.
- The Non-Concessional Contributions cap will remain at $100,000 (although transitional arrangements may apply), and the Concessional Contributions cap will remain at $25,000.
- The CGT cap amount will be $1,480,000.
- The Division 293 tax threshold will be $250,000.
- The maximum super contribution base for superannuation guarantee purposes will be $54,030 per quarter.
- The maximum superannuation co-contribution entitlement for the 2018/19 income year will remain at $500 (with the lower income threshold increasing to $37,697 and the higher income threshold increasing to $52,697).
The superannuation benefit caps for the 2018/19 income year include:
- a low rate cap amount of $205,000;
- an untaxed plan cap amount of $1,480,000;
- a general transfer balance cap of $1.6m;
- a defined benefit income cap of $100,000;
- an ETP cap amount for life benefit termination payments and death benefit termination payments of $205,000; and
- the tax-free part of genuine redundancy payments and early retirement scheme payments comprising a base limit of $10,399 and for each complete year of service an additional $5,200
Super guarantee payable on ‘public holidays’ and ‘additional hours’!
The Federal Court has held that superannuation guarantee contributions were payable with respect to the ‘additional hours’ and ‘public holidays’ component of annualised salaries paid by BlueScope Steel, on the basis that these particular components formed part of ordinary time earnings (‘OTE’).
Under an enterprise agreement, primarily due to the specific working environment, the employees in question were required to be available (at short notice) 365 days per year and 24 hours per day, including a requirement to work additional hours and public holidays.
As such, the employees were paid an annualised salary, which was made up of a base rate, as well as a component which absorbed all additional payments, such as penalty rates, allowances, public holiday loadings and pay-outs, and payment for additional hours worked outside the normal rostered hours.
However, when paying superannuation, adjustments were made to the annualised salary, so that the additional hours and public holiday components were not included by BlueScope Steel as OTE for superannuation guarantee purposes.
The Federal Court did not agree with the employer’s adjustments, instead finding that, under the circumstances, the ‘additional hours’ and ‘public holidays’ formed part of an employee’s ‘ordinary hours of work’ and, therefore, were considered OTE for superannuation guarantee purposes.
This remained the case whether or not the employee actually worked the additional hours or the public holidays.
That is, the ordinary conditions of the employee’s work required them to be available outside their rostered shifts and on public holidays (on short notice) and, as this was factored into their annual salary, they were considered ordinary hours for these particular employees
Inactive ABNs will be cancelled by the ATO
The ATO has recently advised that, in an effort to maintain accurate data, the Australian Business Register (or ‘ABR’) periodically checks its records for Australian Business Numbers (‘ABNs’) and automatically cancels those that appear inactive.
Ultimately, a taxpayer’s ABN may be cancelled if they:
- have told the ATO they stopped their business activity;
- declared no business income in the last two years; or
- have not lodged a BAS or an income tax return in more than two years.
To avoid cancellation, the ATO has reminded taxpayers that they need to bring their lodgments up to date, and have reminded sole traders that, regardless of their income, they need to lodge the individual tax return with the supplementary section, as well as the business and professional items schedule.
Commissioner’s speech highlights ATO’s focus areas
Recently, the Commissioner of Taxation highlighted the areas in which the ATO has recently increased its focus, including:
- undeclared income;
- individuals’ unexplained wealth or lifestyle;
- incorrectly claimed private expenses;
- unpaid superannuation guarantee; and
- cash-only businesses and those with low usage of merchant banking facilities, with black economy visits to over 2,600 businesses across 8 locations in 2017.
The Commissioner also highlighted ongoing ATO concern with respect to the predicted ‘work-related expense claim gap’, which (at least by the ATO’s estimates) could amount to being greater than the ‘large corporate tax gap’ of $2.5 billion of lost revenue.
No need to actually ‘downsize’ for ‘downsizer contributions’
From 1 July 2018, individuals aged 65 or over may use the proceeds from the sale of an eligible dwelling that was their main residence to make superannuation contributions (referred to as ‘downsizer contributions’), up to a maximum of $300,000 per person (i.e., up to $600,000 per couple), without having to satisfy the age or gainful employment tests that usually apply.
This measure was announced in the 2017/18 Federal Budget, and aims to provide an incentive for older Australians to ‘downsize’ their home.
This, in turn, is expected to reduce pressure on housing affordability by freeing up stocks of larger homes for growing families.
Importantly, it should be noted that there is no requirement for an individual to actually ‘downsize’ by acquiring a smaller property, or to even acquire another property at all.
In this regard, all that is required is that the individual (or their spouse) ‘downsizes’ by selling their ‘main residence’.
The individual can then move into any living situation that suits them, such as aged care, a retirement village, a bigger or smaller dwelling than the one sold, a rental property, or living with family.
Also, the property sold does not need to have been the individual’s (or their spouse’s) main residence during their entire ownership of it, provided the property was owned for at least 10 years and was their main residence at some time during the ownership period. Therefore, the sale of an investment property that at one stage was their main residence may enable an individual (or their spouse) to make downsizer contributions.
Big changes proposed to eligibility for the CGT SBCs
The Treasurer has released draft legislation containing new “integrity improvements” to the CGT small business concessions (‘SBCs’) (i.e., including the 15-year exemption, the retirement exemption, the 50% active asset reduction and the small business roll-over).
Due to the government’s “continued support for genuine small business taxpayers”, it proposes making amendments so that the CGT SBCs can only be accessed in relation to assets used in a small business or ownership interests in a small business.
Predominantly, the amendments include additional basic conditions that must be satisfied for a taxpayer to apply the CGT SBCs to a capital gain arising in relation to a share in a company or an interest in a trust (i.e., a unit in a unit trust).
This integrity rule is designed to prevent taxpayers from accessing these concessions for assets which are unrelated to their small business, such as where taxpayers arrange their affairs so that their ownership interests in larger businesses do not count towards the tests for determining eligibility for the concessions.
Under the proposed amendments, the measure would be backdated to apply from 1 July 2017.
The proposed amendments, if enacted as currently drafted, will significantly restrict access to the CGT SBCs where taxpayers owning shares in a company, or units in a unit trust, seek to dispose of their interests in the entity.
This will particularly be the case where such interests are held in an asset-owning entity (i.e., which holds and/or leases business assets across to a separate, yet related, business entity).
It is to be hoped that the more draconian aspects of these measures may be scaled back, but due to the retrospective nature of the proposed amendments (i.e., from 1 July 2017), caution is warranted with respect to the SBCs in relation to the disposal of shares or units
.ATO’s focus on work-related expenses
This year, the ATO is paying close attention to what people are claiming as ‘other’ work-related expense deductions, so it’s important when taxpayers claim these expenses that they have records to show:
- they spent the money themselves and were not reimbursed;
- the expense was directly related to earning their income; and
- they have a record to prove it.
If the expense is for work and private use, the taxpayer can only claim a deduction for the work-related portion.
Importantly, taxpayers are not automatically entitled to claim standard deductions, but need to be able to show how they worked out their claims.
‘Other’ work related expenses are expenses incurred by employees in relation to their work that are not for travel, clothing or self-education, such as home office expenses.
Taxpayer can’t explain where she got the money to pay her expenses
The Administrative Appeals Tribunal has upheld amended assessments issued by the ATO to a beauty technician, based on the high volume of money passing through the taxpayer’s various accounts when compared with the modest income she had included in her tax returns.
For example, in the 2015 income year, the taxpayer had declared income of $61,842, but the ATO’s analysis of her bank accounts, records of international money transfers, and casino data suggested she had spent $107,328.
The Tribunal noted that, in cases like this, the ATO is effectively making an “informed guess” as to the taxpayer’s income, but, provided there is
a rational basis for the estimate, the ATO’s assessment will stand, unless the taxpayer can:
- demonstrate the assessment was excessive; and
- establish what the correct (or more nearly correct) figure is.
After hearing from the taxpayer and witnesses at the hearing, and after reviewing the documents, the Tribunal was not persuaded that the taxpayer had demonstrated that the Commissioner’s assessments were ‘excessive’.
In particular, the taxpayer’s explanation regarding her income and expenditure was not supported by the objective facts in the hearing, being:
- the ‘churn’ through her bank accounts;
- the absence of contemporaneous records beyond the bank accounts (for example, she was always paid in cash without receiving pay slips); and
- the deficiency in corroborating evidence from other witnesses.
In addition to upholding the amended assessments, the Tribunal was also satisfied that the ATO’s 75% administrative penalty on top of the tax payable was properly imposed.
Uber driver not an ’employee’
In a recent case, an Uber driver’s access to the Uber app had been terminated as a result of failing to maintain an adequate overall rating, and he applied to the Fair Work Commission (FWC) for an unfair dismissal claim against Uber.
However, the FWC held that he was an independent contractor and not an ’employee’, and therefore his application for unfair dismissal was dismissed.
Although this was not a tax case, it is obviously of interest to anyone involved in the ‘gig economy’, and it may have flow-on implications for other employment issues, such as super guarantee.
Government to fix a problem with reversionary TRISs
The government has released draft legislation to ensure that a reversionary Transition to Retirement Income Stream (‘TRIS’) will always be allowed to automatically transfer to eligible dependants (i.e., upon the death of the primary recipient).
Currently, a reversionary TRIS cannot transfer to a dependant if the dependant has not personally satisfied a condition of release.
If this positive measure is legislated, it will apply to reversionary TRISs from 1 July 2017.
New small business benchmarks are available
The ATO has updated its small business benchmarks with the latest data from the 2015/16 financial year.
In addition to helping businesses to see if they are performing within their industry average, the benchmarks are one of the tools the ATO uses to identify businesses that may be a higher risk.
That is, they use the benchmarks to pick their audit targets, so please contact us if you would like us to check whether your data is inside or outside the average benchmark range for your industry.
Guide to the new Small Business Super Clearing House
The Small Business Superannuation Clearing House (SBSCH) joined the ATO’s online services on 26 February 2018.
This is intended to streamline how businesses use the SBSCH, and will also include extra functionality, such as the ability to sort employee listings and payment by credit card.
The SBSCH is a free service that businesses with 19 or fewer employees (or which are SBEs) can use to comply with their super obligations.
Deputy Commissioner James O’Halloran said “We recognise there are some major new considerations and decisions for SMSFs and their advisers to make in this first financial year of operation of the superannuation reforms that came into effect from 1 July 2017.
“We have therefore decided to extend the lodgement date for 2016/17 SMSF annual returns so that SMSF trustees and their advisers can focus on these important matters.”
Further ‘affordable housing’ measures passed
Parliament has passed the legislation allowing first home buyers to save for a deposit inside superannuation through the First Home Super Saver Scheme (FHSSS), and also allowing older Australians to ‘downsize’ and then contribute the proceeds of the sale of their family home into superannuation.
From 1 July 2018, a first home buyer will be able to withdraw voluntary superannuation contributions they have made since 1 July 2017 (up to $30,000 each, with individuals being able to contribute up to $15,000 a year within existing caps), along with a deemed rate of earnings, to help buy their home.
Also, from 1 July 2018, when Australians aged 65 and over sell a home they have owned for at least 10 years, they may contribute up to $300,000 from the proceeds into their superannuation accounts, over and above existing contribution restrictions. Both members of a couple may take advantage of this measure, together contributing up to $600,000 from the proceeds of the sale into superannuation.
Consultation on ‘protecting superannuation entitlements’
Following the recommendations of the Superannuation Guarantee Cross‑Agency Working Group, the Government has released draft legislation “to protect workers’ superannuation entitlements and modernise the enforcement of the superannuation guarantee”.
The draft laws extend Single Touch Payroll to all employers from 1 July 2019 and will require superannuation funds to commence ‘event-based’ reporting to the ATO of payments they receive for employees from their employer from 1 July 2018.
Combined, these measures (if passed as drafted) should provide the ATO with more timely information to support earlier detection and proactive prevention of non‑payment of superannuation owed to employees.
The ATO will have a suite of enforcement and collection tools for employers who break the law, including
- strengthened arrangements for director penalty notices and security deposits for superannuation and other tax-related liabilities;
- the ability (for the first time) to apply for court‑ordered penalties, including up to 12 months imprisonment; and
- the ability to require employers to undertake training.
The Government’s commitment to a Director Identification Number will also help identify those directors who are robbing their employees of their superannuation.
The Government introduced legislation last year to implement another recommendation by the Working Group to close a loophole that could be used by unscrupulous employers to short‑change employees who use salary sacrifice arrangements, and will progress that legislation along with this broader compliance Bill
ATO warning regarding small business record-keeping
According to the ATO, of all of the things that can cause small businesses to fold, “high on that list is poor record keeping”.
More than half of the businesses they visited in their Protecting honest business campaign needed to improve their record keeping.
Issues they found include businesses:
- estimating their sales and income;
- using the ‘no sale’ and ‘void’ button on cash registers when taking cash payments;
- not keeping cash register tapes and not reconciling at the end of the day; and
- paying their employees cash-in-hand.
They are writing to these businesses to recommend they attend one of the ATO’s record keeping workshops, which cover why good record keeping is important and how it will save them time.
ATO data matching program – Visa Holders
The ATO will acquire information on holders of a Visa from the Department of Immigration and Border Protection for the 2017/18, 2018/19 and 2019/20 financial years.
It is estimated that records of 20 million individuals will be obtained over the course of the three-year period.
These records will be electronically matched with ATO data holdings to identify non‑compliance with obligations under taxation and superannuation laws, as well as (for example) support compliance activities under Australia’s foreign investment rules.
Review of rules for early release of superannuation
The Government has announced that Treasury will review the current rules governing early release of superannuation on grounds of severe financial hardship and compassionate grounds.
It will also review whether, and the circumstances in which, a perpetrator’s superannuation should be available to pay compensation or restitution to victims of crime.
The review will not examine other general conditions of release for superannuation.
The Government also announced that it will transfer the regulatory role of administering the early release of superannuation benefits on compassionate grounds from the Department of Human Services to the ATO in 2018, to enable the ATO to provide a more streamlined service to members.
ATO extends due date for 2016/17 SMSF returns
The ATO will extend the due date for lodgement of self-managed superannuation fund (SMSF) annual returns for 2016/17 to 30 June 2018.
Deputy Commissioner James O’Halloran said “We recognise there are some major new considerations and decisions for SMSFs and their advisers to make in this first financial year of operation of the superannuation reforms that came into effect from 1 July 2017.
“We have therefore decided to extend the lodgement date for 2016/17 SMSF annual returns so that SMSF trustees and their advisers can focus on these important matters.”
Taskforce to help digitise small business
The Government has established a Small Business Digital Taskforce, to be headed by entrepreneur Mark Bouris AM, to ensure more Australian small businesses can thrive in an increasingly digital economy.
Mark Bouris said: “When a business begins to digitise and use digital tools, it opens up new opportunities to grow, diversify revenue streams, find talent, access finance, work smarter and enhance the value of the business when it is time to sell. If you’re not going digital, you should be.”
Deloitte research has found that small businesses with advanced levels of digital engagement are 1.5 times more likely to be growing revenue, 8 times more likely to be creating jobs and 14 times more likely to be innovating.
The Taskforce will conduct a series of meetings, workshops and ‘hackathons’ with businesses over the coming months to explore impediments for business in engaging with digital technologies and how these impediments might be addressed.
Season’s greetings from all the team at SPR Accounting, wishing you and your family a safe and very happy holiday season and a joyous new year.
The ongoing citizenship saga in Parliament has resulted in the Government losing its one-seat majority in the House of Representatives, thanks to the resignations of Barnaby Joyce and John Alexander.
By-elections have been scheduled in the relevant electorates and, in the meantime, some of the cross-benchers have guaranteed the Government’s (current) survival by committing to vote with it on motions of no-confidence and supply.
Tax legislation passed
In other news, the Government has passed changes to the tax legislation that will limit, or deny, deductions for travel expenses and depreciation claims for certain residential premises.
Legislation to impose vacancy fees on foreign acquisitions of residential land has also been passed.
ATO relief for SMSFs reporting ‘transfer balance account’ events
The ATO has announced that, from 1 July 2018, SMSF event-based reporting regarding events impacting a member’s transfer balance account (i.e., via a Transfer Balance Account Report) will be limited to SMSFs with members with total superannuation balances of $1 million or more.
This new reporting is only required if an event that impacts a member’s transfer balance account actually occurs (e.g., such as starting an account based pension, or commuting such a pension).
This effectively means that up to 85% of the SMSF population will not be required to undertake any additional reporting with respect to a member’s transfer balance cap, outside of current time frames (as SMSFs with members with account balances below $1 million can choose to simply report events which impact their members’ transfer balances when the fund lodges its SMSF annual return).
However, from 1 July 2018, SMSFs that have members with total superannuation account balances of $1 million or more will be required to report any events impacting members’ transfer balance accounts within 28 days after the end of the quarter in which the event occurs.
Whilst SMSFs are not required to report anything to the ATO until 1 July 2018, SMSF trustees should be mindful that, where the $1.6 million transfer balance cap has been breached in respect of a member from 1 July 2017, any resulting tax liability will continue to accrue until the excess amount is commuted (i.e., irrespective of when reporting that breach is required).
ATO’s annual closure
This year, the ATO’s annual office closure is between noon Friday 22 December and 8.00am Tuesday 2 January 2018.
Also, the ATO may have systems maintenance on some weekends, so they recommend that lodgements be made as early as possible, as even returns or activity statements lodged in early December may not be finalised until after 2 January 2018.
Truck drivers’ reasonable amounts for travel updated
Following detailed consultation with the transport industry, the ATO has amended their determination for travel expenses for truck drivers to provide separate reasonable travel allowance expense amounts for breakfast, lunch and dinner for employee truck drivers for the 2017/18 income year.
The reasonable amount for travel expenses (excluding accommodation) of employee truck drivers who have received a travel allowance and who are required to sleep away from home was originally reduced for 2017/18 to a total of $55.30 per day, but this daily rate has now been replaced with the following amounts for all domestic travel destinations for the 2017/18 income year:
- Breakfast $24.25
- Lunch $27.65
- Dinner $47.70
The amounts for each of these meal breaks are separate and cannot be aggregated into a single daily amount, and amounts cannot be moved from one meal to another (e.g., if the full amount for breakfast is not expended, it cannot be carried over to lunch or dinner).
A driver’s work diary (as maintained for fatigue management purposes) can be used to demonstrate when meal breaks were taken.
Tool for applying the margin scheme to a property sale
The ATO is recommending that taxpayers use their recently updated GST property decision tool to work out if GST applies to their property sales.
The tool can be used to determine GST on the sale, lease or purchase of real property, and was recently updated for easier use on mobile devices.
After providing the relevant information, the tool will generate a GST decision that:
- advises whether GST is payable on a sale;
- estimates the amount of GST payable when applying the margin scheme; and
- advises whether the taxpayer is eligible to claim input tax credits.
Note that the ATO does not record any personal information and users will remain anonymous.
Other GST News
The Government has released draft legislation on “improving the integrity of GST on property transactions”, as announced in the 2017/18 Federal Budget.
They intend to amend the GST law so that, from 1 July 2018, purchasers will withhold the GST on the purchase price of new residential premises and new residential subdivisions, and remit the GST directly to the ATO as part of settlement.
This is to address tax evasion through “phoenixing arrangements”, where developers collect GST from their customers but dissolve their company to avoid paying it to the ATO.
To provide certainty for contracts that have already been entered into, the draft legislation provides a two-year transitional arrangement – contracts entered into before 1 July 2018 will not be affected as long as the transaction settles before 1 July 2020.
In addition, the GST Act has been amended to ensure that supplies of digital currency receive equivalent GST treatment to supplies of money (particularly foreign currency).If an employee truck driver wants to claim more than the reasonable amount, the whole claim must be substantiated with written evidence, not just the amount more than the reasonable amount.
Numerous work-related expense claims disallowed
The AAT has denied a taxpayer’s deductions for work-related travel, clothing, self-education and rental property expenses (totalling $116,068 and $140,581 for the 2013 and 2014 income year respectively), and upheld the ATO’s 50% administrative penalty on the tax shortfall for recklessness.
Apart from being unable to prove (or ‘substantiate’) some claims due to lack of receipts, and documents being in the wrong name, the AAT also criticised the taxpayer for:
- claiming work-related travel expenses on the basis of the ‘gap’ between travel expenses reimbursed by her employer and the ATO’s reasonable rates (which “was clearly not permissible under any taxation law”); and
- claiming clothing expenses for “formal clothes of high class”, despite her clothing not being distinctive or unique to her employment at the Department of Finance, and was instead rather conventional in nature (and so was not deductible).
Reporting of transfer balance account information
The recent superannuation reforms introduced the concept of a ‘transfer balance account’, to basically record the value of member balances moving into or out of ‘retirement phase’.
To monitor these amounts, the ATO is introducing new reporting requirements and forms.
The ATO has released the new Transfer Balance Account Report (‘TBAR’), which is now available on ato.gov.au, and the ATO plans to have an online TBAR form available from 1 January 2018.
The TBAR is the approved form to provide data relating to transactions associated with the payment of retirement phase income streams to the ATO.
Reporting on events that affect a member’s transfer balance account is vital to minimising the taxation consequences if the transfer balance cap is exceeded.
While SMSFs will not be required to report anything until 1 July 2018, SMSFs can use the TBAR to report events that affect an individual member’s transfer balance account from 1 October 2017.
SMSFs with relatively straightforward affairs are likely to have only a few events per member to report over the life of the fund, including the commencing values of any retirement phase income streams to which an SMSF member is entitled (e.g., account based pensions, including reversionary income streams), and the value of any commutation of a retirement phase income stream by an SMSF member.
ATO’s occupation-specific guides
The ATO has developed occupation-specific guides to help taxpayers understand what they can and can’t claim as work-related expenses, including:
- car expenses;
- home office expenses;
- clothing expenses; and
- self-education or professional development expenses.
The guides are available for the following occupations:
- construction worker;
- retail worker;
- office worker;
- Australian Defence Force;
- sales and marketing;
- nurse, midwife, or carer;
- police officer;
- public servant;
- teacher; and
- truck driver.
Binding Death Benefit Nomination (‘BDBN’) upheld
A recent decision by the Full Court of the South Australian Supreme Court has provided guidance about the operation of BDBNs.
Members of super funds may generally make a BDBN directing the trustee of the fund to pay out their superannuation benefits after their death in a particular way and/or to particular beneficiaries.
In this case, the member had executed a BDBN that nominated his legal personal representative (‘LPR’) as the beneficiary to receive his death benefits.
Because he frequently lived outside Australia, he had also executed an enduring power of attorney (‘EPOA’) allowing his brother to be the sole director of the corporate trustee of his SMSF in his place.
Following his death, the executor of his estate (Dr Booth) brought an action for declarations that the trustee was bound by the BDBN.
Both the executor of a will and a person acting under an EPOA are ‘LPRs’ for superannuation purposes.
The Full Court held that the BDBN was effective and that Dr Booth, as executor of the will, was the LPR for these purposes.
Although the brother was the LPR of the deceased during his lifetime, the EPOA was terminated upon his death.
Reforms to stop companies avoiding employee entitlements
The Government will introduce new laws to stop corporate misuse of the Australian Government’s Fair Entitlements Guarantee (FEG) scheme.
The FEG scheme is an avenue of last resort that assists employees when their employer’s business fails and the employer has not made adequate provision for employee entitlements, but it is clear that some company directors are misusing the FEG scheme to meet liabilities that can and should be paid directly by the employer, rather than passed on to Australian taxpayers.
The proposed changes will:
- Penalise company directors and other persons who engage in transactions which are directed at preventing, avoiding or reducing employer liability for employee entitlements;
- Ensure recovery of FEG from other entities in a corporate group where it would be just and equitable and where those other entities have utilised the human resources of the insolvent entity on other than arm’s length terms; and
- Strengthen the ability under the law to sanction directors and company officers with a track record of insolvencies where FEG is repeatedly relied upon.
These changes will be targeted to deter and punish only those who have inappropriately relied on FEG, and so should not affect most of companies who are doing the right thing.
The Government has separately released a ‘Comprehensive Package of Reforms to Address Illegal Phoenixing’, which will assist regulators to better target action against those who repeatedly misuse corporate structures and enable them to take stronger action against those entities and individuals.
These reforms will include (for example) the introduction of a Director Identification Number (DIN) (to identify all directors with a unique number), and making directors personally liable for GST liabilities as part of extended director penalty provisions.
Can travel in an Uber be exempt from FBT?
The ATO has released a discussion paper to facilitate consultation regarding the definition of ‘taxi’ contained in the FBT Act, and the exemption from FBT for taxi travel undertaken to or from work or due to illness.
Although the provision of travel by an employer to an employee would generally be a benefit upon which FBT would be payable, employers are specifically exempted from having to pay FBT in respect of travel undertaken by their employees in a ‘taxi’ to or from work or due to illness of the employee.
The ATO has previously advised that this exemption “does not extend to ride-sourcing services provided in a vehicle that is not licensed to operate as a taxi.”
However, considering a recent Federal Court decision regarding Uber, and proposed changes to licensing regulations in a number of states and territories, the ATO is reviewing its interpretation of the definition of ‘taxi’ in the FBT Act and may adopt an interpretation that accepts that a taxi may include a ride-sourcing vehicle or other vehicle for hire.
Until this matter is resolved, private travel (including between home and work) undertaken using ride-sourcing vehicles and other vehicles for hire may possibly be exempt from FBT under the minor benefits exemption.
No small business tax rate for passive investment companies
The Government has released draft tax legislation to clarify that passive investment companies cannot access the lower company tax rate for small businesses of 27.5%, but will still pay tax at 30%.
The amendment to the tax law will ensure that a company will not qualify for the lower company tax rate if 80% or more of its income is of a passive nature (such as dividends and interest).
The Minister for Revenue and Financial Services said the policy decision made by the Government to cut the tax rate for small companies was meant to lower taxes on business, and was not meant to apply to passive investment companies.
ATO to be provided with more super guarantee information
The Government has announced a package of reforms to give the ATO near real-time visibility over superannuation guarantee (SG) compliance by employers.
The Government will also provide the ATO with additional funding for a SG Taskforce to crackdown on employer non-compliance.
The package includes measures to:
- require superannuation funds to report contributions received more frequently (at least monthly) to the ATO, enabling the ATO to identify non-compliance and take prompt action;
- require employers with 19 or fewer employees to transition to single touch payroll (‘STP’) reporting from 1 July 2019;
- improve the effectiveness of the ATO’s recovery powers, including strengthening director penalty notices and use of security bonds for high-risk employers, to ensure that unpaid superannuation is better collected by the ATO and paid to employees’ super accounts; and
- give the ATO the ability to seek court-ordered penalties in the most egregious cases of non-payment, including employers who are repeatedly caught but fail to pay SG liabilities.
Following extensive consultation when STP was originally announced, it was decided that employers with 19 or fewer employees would not be required to comply.
Given the backflip here, the business community will be hoping the Government does not introduce compulsory real-time payments of SG and PAYG withholding, as well as real-time reporting.
ATO: Combatting the cash economy
The ATO has reminded taxpayers that it uses a range of tools to identify and take action against people and businesses that may not be correctly meeting their obligations. Through ‘data matching’, it can identify businesses that do not have electronic payment facilities.
These businesses often advertise as ‘cash only’ or mainly deal in cash transactions. When businesses do this, they are more likely to make mistakes or do not keep thorough records.
The ATO’s ability to match and use data is very sophisticated. It collects information from a number of sources (including banks, other government agencies and industry suppliers), and also obtains information about purchases of major items, such as cars and real property, and then compares this information against income and expenditure reported by businesses and individuals to the ATO.
Example: Unrealistic personal income leads to unreported millions
The income reported on their personal income tax returns indicated that a couple operating a property development company didn’t seem to have sufficient income to cover their living expenses.
The ATO found their company had failed to report millions of dollars from the sale of properties over a number of years.
They had to pay the correct amount of tax (of more than $4.5 million) based on their income and all their related companies, and also incurred a variety of penalties.
Example: Failing to report online sales
A Nowra court convicted the owner of a computer sales and repair business on eight charges of understating the business’s GST and income tax liabilities.
The ATO investigated discrepancies between income reported by the business and amounts deposited in the business owner’s bank accounts, and found that the business had failed to report income from online sales.
The business owner was ordered to pay over $36,000 in unreported tax and more than $18,400 in penalties, and also fined $4,000 (and now has a criminal conviction).
Get it in writing and get a receipt
The ATO also notes that requesting a written contract or tax invoice and getting a receipt for payment may protect a consumer’s rights and obligations relating to insurance, warranties, consumer rights and government regulations.
Consumers who support the cash economy, by paying cash and not getting a receipt, risk having no evidence to claim a refund if the goods or services purchased are faulty, or prove who was responsible in case of poor work quality.
Higher risk trust arrangements targeted
The ATO’s ‘Tax Avoidance Taskforce – Trusts’ continues the work of the Trusts Taskforce, by targeting higher risk trust arrangements in privately owned and wealthy groups.
The Taskforce will focus on the lodgement of trust tax returns, accurate completion of return labels, present entitlement of exempt
entities, distributions to superannuation funds, and inappropriate claiming of CGT concessions by trusts.
Arrangements that attract the attention of the Taskforce include those where:
- trusts or their beneficiaries who have received substantial income are not registered, or have not lodged tax returns or activity statements;
- there are offshore dealings involving secrecy or low tax jurisdictions;
- there are agreements with no apparent commercial basis that direct income entitlements to a low-tax beneficiary while the benefits are enjoyed by others;
- changes have been made to trust deeds or other constituent documents to achieve a tax planning benefit, with such changes not credibly explicable for other reasons;
- there are artificial adjustments to trust income, so that tax outcomes do not reflect the economic substance (e.g., where someone receives substantial benefits from a trust but the tax liability on those benefits is attributed elsewhere, or where the full tax liability is passed to entities with no capacity/intention to pay);
- transactions have excessively complex features or sham characteristics (e.g., round robin circulation of income among trusts);
- revenue activities are mischaracterised to achieve concessional CGT treatment (e.g., by using special purpose trusts in an attempt to re-characterise mining or property development income as discountable capital gains); and
- new trust arrangements have materialised that involve taxpayers or promoters linked to previous non-compliance (e.g., people connected to liquidated entities that had unpaid tax debts).
ALP announces massive (potential) changes to trust taxation
Although we don’t normally report on Opposition tax policies, this policy change is so fundamental, and the existing state of the Federal Parliament is so chaotic, that we believe it’s worth bringing this to your attention.
The Leader of the Opposition, Bill Shorten, has announced that a Labor Government (should they be elected) will introduce a standard minimum 30% tax rate for discretionary trust distributions to “mature beneficiaries” (i.e., people aged 18 and over).
Although the ALP acknowledges that individuals and businesses use trusts for a range of legitimate reasons, such as asset protection and business succession, “in some cases, trusts are used solely for tax minimisation.”
Labor’s policy will only apply to discretionary trusts, so other trusts – such as special disability trusts, deceased estates and fixed trusts – will not be affected by this change.
Labor’s policy will also not apply to farm trusts and charitable trusts, and other exemptions will apply, such as for people with disability (the Commissioner of Taxation will be given discretionary powers to manage this).
Their announcement also reiterated their other policies regarding tax reform, including further changes to superannuation, changes to negative gearing and CGT, and limiting deductions for managing tax affairs.
Single Touch Payroll update
A limited release of ‘Single Touch Payroll’ began for a small number of digital service providers and their clients on 1 July 2017, with Single Touch Payroll operating with limited functionality for a select number of employers.
Single Touch Payroll will effectively require some employers to report information regarding payments to employees (or to their super funds)in ‘real time’, via their payroll software.
The following timeline sets out what is happening in the lead-up to the mandatory commencement of Single Tough Payroll next year.
September 2017 – the ATO will write to all employers with 20 or more employees to inform them of their reporting obligations under Single Touch Payroll.
1 April 2018 – employers will need to do a headcount of the number of employees they have, to determine if they need to report through Single Touch Payroll.
From 1 July 2018 – Single Touch Payroll reporting will be mandatory for employers with 20 or more employees.
Keeping ABN details up to date
The ATO finds that businesses tend to forget to update their Australian business number (ABN) details in the Australian Business Register (ABR) when their circumstances or details change, so they have asked that we contact our clients to help keep your ABN details up to date and reduce unnecessary contact from the ATO.
In particular, the ATO says that many partnership and trust ABNs are not in operation, or their business structures have changed, so please let us know if:
- your business is no longer in operation (so we can cancel the ABN); or
- if your business structure has changed (so we can cancel the ABN for the old structure before applying for a new one).
The ATO also recommends that we add alternative contacts to clients’ ABN records (so please provide us with alternative contact information, if possible), and to update the ABN records where any contact details have changed.
Register trading names with ASIC
By 31 October 2018, businesses will need to register any existing or old trading names as a business name with the Australian Securities & Investments Commission (ASIC) in order to continue operating with it.
The ABN Lookup website will reflect these changes and will only display business names registered with ASIC from this date.
Limited opportunity to avoid ‘transfer balance cap’ problems
If the total value of a superannuation fund member’s pensions exceeded $1.6 million on 1 July 2017, they may face adverse tax consequences.
However, there is a transitional provision that permits a minor excess over $1.6 million to be ignored, subject to certain conditions being met.
Basically, this will be satisfied if the value of their pension interests on 1 July 2017 exceeded $1.6 million by no more than $100,000 (i.e., their total value did not exceed $1.7 million), but the member is able to commute the pension(s) by an amount that is at least equal to that excess no later than 31 December 2017.
This will mean that no ‘transfer balance cap’ consequences arise (e.g., no ‘excess transfer balance earnings’ will accrue on the excess and no ‘excess transfer balance tax’ will become payable).
Therefore, it is important that this issue is identified and, if applicable, dealt with promptly.
Please contact us if you believe this may affect you and you need more information.
New Approved Occupational Clothing Guidelines 2017
The government has issued new guidelines to set out criteria for tax deductible non-compulsory uniforms.
The taxation law only allows a deduction to employees for expenditure on uniforms or wardrobes where either:
- the clothing is in the nature of occupation specific, or protective clothing; or
- the wearing of the clothing is a compulsory condition of employment for employees and the clothing is not conventional in nature; or
- where the wearing of the clothing is not compulsory, the design of the clothing entered on the Register of Approved Occupational Clothing.
The new guidelines outline (among other things):
- the steps that need to be undertaken by employers to have designs of occupational clothing registered; and
- the factors that will be considered in determining whether designs of occupational clothing may be registered.
The guidelines commence on 1 October 2017, and the previous Guidelines are revoked with effect from the same day.
Ability to lodge nil activity statements in advance
The ATO generally issues activity statements by the end of the relevant month under their normal processes, allowing the statement to be lodged by 21 days after the end of the month, or 28 days after the end of the relevant quarter (as appropriate).
However, the ATO recognises that there may be a specific reason for a taxpayer to access their activity statements early, so activity statements can be generated early in some cases, such as where the taxpayer is going to be absent from their place of business before the end of the reporting period (and the business will not be trading during that period), or if the taxpayer’s entity is under some form of administration, or the business has ceased.
There are certain eligibility requirements to take advantage of this service, so please contact us if this is of interest to you.
ATO warning regarding work-related expense claims for 2017
The ATO is increasing attention, scrutiny and education on work-related expenses (WREs) this tax time.
Assistant Commissioner Kath Anderson said: “We have seen claims for clothing and laundry expenses increase around 20% over the last five years. While this increase isn’t a sign that all of these taxpayers are doing the wrong thing, it is giving us a reason to pay extra attention.”
Ms Anderson said common mistakes the ATO has seen include people claiming ineligible clothing, claiming for something without having spent the money, and not being able to explain the basis for how the claim was calculated.
“I heard a story recently about a taxpayer purchasing everyday clothes who was told by the sales assistant that they could claim a deduction for the clothing if they also wore them to work,” Ms Anderson said.
“This is not the case. You can’t claim a deduction for everyday clothing you bought to wear to work, even if your employer tells you to wear a certain colour or you have a dress code.”
Ms Anderson said it is a myth that taxpayers can claim a standard deduction of $150 without spending money on appropriate clothing or laundry. While record keeping requirements for laundry expenses are “relaxed” for claims up to this threshold, taxpayers do need to be able to show how they calculated their deduction.
The main message from the ATO was for taxpayers to remember to:
- Declare all income;
- Do not claim a deduction unless the money has actually been spent;
- Do not claim a deduction for private expenses; and
- Make sure that the appropriate records are kept proving any claims.
GST applies to services or digital products bought from overseas
From 1 July 2017, GST applies to imported services and digital products from overseas, including:
- digital products such as streaming or downloading of movies, music, apps, games and e-books; and
- services such as architectural, educational and legal.
Australian GST registered businesses will not be charged GST on their purchases from a non-resident supplier if they:
- provide their ABN to the non-resident supplier; and
- state they are registered for GST.
However, if Australians purchase imported services and digital products only for personal use, they should not provide their ABN.
Imposition of GST on ‘low-value’ foreign supplies
Parliament has passed legislation which applies GST to goods costing $1,000 or less supplied from offshore to Australian consumers from 1 July 2018.
Using a ‘vendor collection model’, the law will require overseas suppliers and online marketplaces (such as Amazon and eBay) with an Australian GST turnover of $75,000 or more to account for GST on sales of low value goods to consumers in Australia.
The deferred start date gives industry participants additional time to make system changes to implement the measure.
It should be noted that this is a separate measure to that which applies GST to digital goods and services purchased from offshore websites, as outlined above.
New threshold for capital gains withholding
From 1 July 2017, where a foreign resident disposes of Australian real property with a market value of $750,000 or above, the purchaser will be required to withhold 12.5% of the purchase price and pay it to the ATO unless the seller provides a variation (this is referred to as ‘foreign resident capital gains withholding’).
However, Australian resident vendors who dispose of Australian real property with a market value of $750,000 or above will need to apply for a clearance certificate from the ATO to ensure amounts are not withheld from their sale proceeds.
Therefore, all transactions involving real property with a market value of $750,000 or above will need the vendor and purchaser to consider if a clearance certificate is required.
Action to address super guarantee non-compliance
The Government will seek to legislate to close a loophole that could be used by unscrupulous employers to short‑change employees who choose to make salary sacrificed contributions into their superannuation accounts.
The Government will introduce a Bill into Parliament this year that will ensure an individual’s salary sacrificed contributions do not reduce their employer’s superannuation guarantee obligation.
Change to travel expenses for truck drivers
The ATO has released its latest taxation determination on reasonable travel expenses, and it includes a big change for employee truck drivers.
For the 2017/18 income year, the reasonable amount for travel expenses (excluding accommodation expenses, which must be substantiated with written evidence) of employee truck drivers who have received a travel allowance and who are required to sleep away from home is $55.30 per day (formerly a total of $97.40 per day for the 2016/17 year).
If an employee truck driver wants to claim more than the reasonable amount, the whole claim must be substantiated with written evidence, not just the amount more than the reasonable amount.
The determination includes an example of a truck driver who receives a travel allowance of $40 per day in 2017/18 ($8,000 over the full year for 100 2-day trips), but who spent $14,000 on meals on these trips.
In terms of claiming deductions for these expenses, he can either claim $14,000 as a travel expense (if he kept all of his receipts for the food and drink he purchased and consumed when travelling), or just rely on the reasonable amount and claim $11,060 ($55.30 x 200 days) as a travel expense (in which case he will need to be able to show (amongst other things) that he typically spent $55 or more a day on food and drink when making a trip (for example, by reference to diary entries, bank records and receipts that he kept for some of the trips)).
Car depreciation limit for 2017/18
The car limit for the 2017/18 income year is $57,581 (the same as the previous year). This amount limits depreciation deductions and GST input tax credits.
In July 2017, Laura buys a car to which the car limit applies for $60,000 to use in carrying on her business. As Laura started to hold the car in the 2017/18 financial year, in working out the car’s depreciation for the 2017/18 income year, the cost of the car is reduced to $57,581.
Div.7A benchmark interest rate
The benchmark interest rate for 2017/18, for the purposes of the deemed dividend provisions of Div.7A, is 5.30% (down from 5.40% for 2016/17).
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